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The Romanian Orthodox Church (Biserica Ortodoxă Română in Romanian) is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox church, in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox churches, and ranked seventh in order of precedence. Its Primate has the title of Patriarch. Its jurisdiction covers the territory of Romania, with additional dioceses for Romanians living in nearby Moldova, Serbia and Hungary, as well as for diaspora communities in Central and Western Europe, North America and Oceania.

It is the only Eastern Orthodox church using a Romance language. The majority of Romania’s population (16,307,004, or 86.5% of those for whom data were available, according to the 2011 census data), as well as some 720,000 Moldovans belong to the Romanian Orthodox Church. The Romanian Orthodox Church is the second-largest in size behind the Russian Orthodox Church.

Members of the Romanian Orthodox Church sometimes refer to the Orthodox doctrine as Dreapta credinţă (“right/correct belief” or “true faith”; compare to Greek ὀρθὴ δόξα, “straight/correct belief”).

The Romanian Orthodox Church is organized in the form of the Romanian Patriarchate. The highest hierarchical, canonical and dogmatical authority of the Romanian Orthodox Church is the Holy Synod.

There are six Orthodox Metropolitanates and ten archbishoprics in Romania, and more than twelve thousand priests and deacons, servant fathers of ancient altars from parishes, monasteries and social centres. Almost 400 monasteries exist inside the country, staffed by some 3,500 monks and 5,000 nuns. Three Diasporan Metropolitanates and two Diasporan Bishoprics function outside Romania proper. As of 2004, there are, insideRomania, fifteen theological universities where more than ten thousand students (some of them from Bessarabia, Bukovina and Serbia benefiting from a few Romanian fellowships) currently study for a doctoral degree. More than 14,500 churches (traditionally named “lăcaşe de cult”, or houses of worship) exist in Romania for the Romanian Orthodox believers. As of 2002, almost 1,000 of those were either in the process of being built or rebuilt.